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Steels are the most common used metallic materials.
The term "steel" describes all metallic alloys (most important alloying addition is carbon) the main constituent of which is iron and that are made malleable through rolling or forging.
Carbon is the element that turns iron into steel. It determines whether the steel is more solid or soft, more ductile or more brittle. However, there are also groups of steel where carbon has no element any more, for example regarding IF-steels (IF = Interstitial-free steels).
Generally, it can be said that steel with a high level of carbon becomes more solid but also more brittle.
The most important procedures for modification of steel properties are:
  • alloying 
  • heat treatment
  • annealing 
  • curing 
  • sintering 
  • quenching and tempering 
  • cold forming 
  • rolling 
  • drawing 
  • bending 
  • ...
Steel is used in so many different sectors, from the beverage cans to knifes, to aircraft body to engines.

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